Latest Articles

Juan Plumbing - 408 439 3263 California SF Bay Area

I'm only trying to be an advocate for a neighbor that is DISABLED and was taken advantage of in this SCAM. I feel the need to expose this thief...

on Oct 23, 2021

Top Ways To Boost Your Home's Curb Appeal

The exterior of your home is the first thing people see, and as everyone knows, first impressions matter. Because of this, you should never...

on Oct 22, 2021

Black Mold Inspection and Remediation in Your Home

Poor indoor air quality can overwhelm your home. Black mold is a primary indoor environmental concern for many homeowners. According to the...

on Oct 20, 2021

7 Common Mistakes to Avoid During Crawl Space Repair

Homeowners should never attempt DIY crawl space repair for, as improper repairs can leave behind damaged piers and beams. A damaged, weak...

on Oct 19, 2021

Best Area Rugs For Your Home or Office

Area rugs are commonly found in homes with hardwood flooring. They are ideal additions for hardwoods, oak floors, tiles, or laminates. They can...

on Oct 17, 2021

Glossary of Real Estate Terms A - J

by Guest on May 15, 2012


A-I Terms - - Real Estate of J-Z Terms


ABR Accredited Buyer Representative Only 4,000 real estate professionals on two continents who have been awarded the ABR designation by the National Association Of Realtors.

Abatement. Stopping or reducing of amount or value, as when assessments for ad valorem taxation are abated after the initial assessment has been made.

Absentee landlord. An owner of an interest in income-producing property who does not reside on the premises, and who may rely on a property manager to oversee the investment.

Absolute fee simple title. An unqualified title. Fee simple is the best title that can be obtained. (See also fee simple)

Abstraction. Method of finding land value in which all improvement costs (less depreciation) are deducted from sales price. Also called extraction.

Access. A way to enter, and leave a tract of land, sometimes by easement over land owned by another. (See also egress, and ingress)

Accessibility. The relative ease of entrance to a property by various means, a factor that contributes to the probable most profitable use of a site.

Accessory buildings. Structures on a property, such as sheds, and garages, are secondary to the main building.

Accretion. Land buildup resulting from the deposit by the natural action of sand or soil washed up from a river, lake or sea.

Accrual basis. In accounting, a system of allocating revenue, and expense items based on when the revenue is earned or the expense incurred, not based on when the cash is received or paid out.

Accrued depreciation. (1) For accounting purposes, total depreciation taken on an asset from the time of its acquisition. (2) For appraisal purposes, the difference between reproduction or replacement cost, and the appraised value as of the date of the appraisal.

Accrued expenses. Expenses incurred that are not yet payable. In a closing statement, the accrued expenses of the seller typically are credited to the purchaser (taxes, wages, interest, etc.).

Acquisition appraisal. A market value appraisal of property condemned or otherwise acquired for public use, to establish the compensation to be paid to the owner.

Acre. A measure of land, 208.71 by 208.71 feet in area, being 43,560 square feet, or 160 square rods or 4,840 square yards.

Actual age. The number of years elapsed since the original structure was built. Sometimes referred to as historical or chronological age.

Adjustable-rate mortgage (ARRI). A financing technique in which the lender can raise or lower the interest rate according to a set index, such as the rate on six-month Treasury bills or the average cost of funds of FDIC-insured institutions. (See also amortized mortgage)

Adjustment. Decrease or increase in the sales price of a comparable property to account for a feature that the property has or does not have in comparison with the subject property.

Ad Valorem. According to value (Latin); generally used to refer to real estate taxes that are based on assessed property value.

Adverse land use. Land use has a detrimental effect on the market value of nearby properties.

Aesthetic value. Relating to beauty, rather than to functional considerations.

Aggregate. In statistics, the sum of all individuals.

Allocation method. The allocation of the appraised total value of the property between land, and building. The allocation may be accomplished either on a ratio basis or by subtracting a figure representing building value from the total appraised value of the property.

Allowance for a vacancy, and collection losses. The percentage of potential gross income that will be lost due to vacant units, collection losses or both.

Amenities. The qualities, and state of being pleasant, and agreeable; in appraising, those qualities that are attached to a property, and from which the owner derives benefits other than monetary; satisfaction of possession, and use arising from architectural excellence, scenic beauty, and social environment.

Amortized mortgage. A mortgage loan in which the principal and interest are payable in periodic installments during the term of the loan so that at the completion of all payments there is a zero balance.

Annuity. A fixed, regular return on investment.

Annuity method. A method of capitalization that treats income from real property as a fixed, regular return on investment. For the annuity method to be applied, the lessee must be reliable, and the lease must be long term.

Appraisal. An estimate of quantity, quality or value; the process through which conclusions of property value are obtained; also refers to the report setting forth the process of estimating value.

Appraisal Foundation. A nonprofit corporation established in 1987, and headquartered in Washington, D.C., sponsored by a major appraisal, and appraisal-related professional, and trade groups.

Appraisal methods. The approaches used in the appraisal of real property. (See also cost approach, income capitalization approach)

Appraisal process. A systematic analysis of the factors that bear on the value of real estate; an orderly program by which the problem is defined; the work necessary to solve the problem is planned; the data involved are acquired, classified, analyzed, and interpreted into an estimate of value; and the value estimate is presented in the form requested by the client.

Appraisal report. An appraiser's written opinion to a client of the value sought for the subject property as of the date of the appraisal, giving all details of the appraisal process.

Appraisal Standards Board. Created by the Appraisal Foundation, and responsible for establishing minimum standards of appraisal competence.

Appraised value. An estimate by an appraiser of the amount of a particular value, such as assessed value, insurable value or market value, based on the particular assignment.

Appraiser. One who estimates value.

Appraiser Qualification Board. Created by the Appraisal Foundation, and responsible for establishing minimum requirements for licensed, and certified appraisers, and licensing, and certifying examinations.

Appreciation. Permanent or temporary increase in monetary value over time due to economic or related causes.

Approaches to value. Any of the following three methods used to estimate the value of real estate: cost approach, income capitalization approach.

Appurtenance. Anything used with land for its benefit, either affixed to land or used with it, that will pass with the conveyance of the land.

Arm's-length transaction. A transaction in which both buyer, and seller act willingly, and under no pressure, with knowledge of the present conditions, and future potential of the property, and in which the property has been offered on the open market for a reasonable length of time, and there are no unusual circumstances. array. An arrangement of statistical data according to numerical size.

Assemblage. The combining of two or more adjoining lots into one larger tract to increase their total value.

Assessed value. The value placed on land, and buildings by a government unit (assessor) for use in levying annual real estate taxes.

Assessment. The imposition of a tax, charge or levy, usually according to established rates. (See also special assessment)

Assessor. One who determines property values for ad valorem taxation.

Asset. Property that is owned, and has value, such as cash or real or personal property.

Average deviation. In statistics, the measure of how far the average individual, or variate, differs from the mean of all variants.


Balance. The appraisal principle that states that the greatest value of a property will occur when the type, and size of the improvements are proportional to each other as well as to the land.

Band of investment. A method of developing a discount rate based on (1) the rate of mortgage interest available, (2) the rate of return required on equity, and (3) the debt, and equity share in the property. A variation of this method is used to compute an overall capitalization rate.

Bargain, and sale deed. A deed that contains no warranties against liens or other encumbrances but implies that the grantor has the right to convey title.

Baseline. A reference survey line of the government or rectangular survey, being an imaginary line extending east, and west, and crossing a principal meridian at a definite point.

Base rent. The minimum rent payable under a percentage lease.

Benchmark. A permanent reference mark (PRM) used by surveyors in measuring differences in elevation. Benchmark. The standard or base from which specific estimates are made.

Beneficiary. The person who is to receive the benefits from a trust fund.

Book value. The value of a property as an asset on the books of account; usually, reproduction or replacement cost, plus additions to capital, and fewer reserves for depreciation.

The breakdown method. (See observed condition depreciation)

Break-even point. That point at which total income equals total expenses.

Break-even ratio. The ratio of operating expenses plus the property's annual debt service to potential gross income.

Building a capitalization rate. The sum of the discount, and capital recapture rates for a building.

Building codes. Rules of local, municipal or state governments specifying minimum building, and construction standards for the protection of public safety, and health.

Building residual technique. A method of capitalization using net income remaining to build after interest on land value has been deducted.

Bundle of rights. A term often applied to the rights of ownership of real estate, including the rights of using, renting, selling or giving away the real estate or not taking any of these actions.


CAR California Association of Realtors

CRS Certified Residential Specialists, professional designation held by fewer than 5% of Realtors in the United States (GRI) Graduates of the Realtors' Institute

Capital. Money and/or property comprising the wealth owned or used by a person or business enterprise to acquire other money or goods.

Capitalization The process employed in estimating the value of a property by the use of an appropriate capitalization rate, and the annual net operating income expected to be produced by the property. The formula is expressed as Income/Rate = Value

Capitalization rate. The percentage rate applied to the income a property is expected to produce to derive an estimate of the property's value; includes both an acceptable rate of return on the amount invested (yield), and return of the actual amount invested (recapture).

Capital recapture. The return of an investment; the right of the investor to get back the amount invested at the end of the term of ownership or over the productive life of the improvements.

Capitalized value method of depreciation. A method of computing depreciation by determining loss in rental value attributable to a depreciated item, and applying a gross rent multiplier to that figure.

Cash basis. A system of recognizing revenue, and expense items only at the time cash is received or paid out.

Cash equivalency technique. Method of adjusting a sales price downward to reflect the increase in value due to assumption or procurement by the buyer of a loan at an interest rate lower than the prevailing market rate.

Cash flow. The net spendable income from an investment, determined by deducting all operating, and fixed expenses from gross income. If expenses exceed income, negative cash flow is the result.

Cash flow rate. (See equity capitalization rate)

Cash on the cash rate. (See equity capitalization rate)

Chain. A surveyor's unit of measurement equal to four rods or 66 feet, consisting of 100 links of 7.92 inches each; ten square chains of land is equal to one acre.

Change, the principle of. The principle that no physical or economic condition ever remains constant.

Chattels. Tangible personal property items.

Client. One who hires another person as a representative or agent for a fee.

Closing statement. The computation of financial adjustments required to close a real estate transaction computed as of the day of closing the sale; used to determine the net amount of money the buyer must pay to the seller to complete the transaction, as well as amounts to be paid to other parties, such as the broker or escrow holder. (See also settlement)

Code of ethics. Rules of ethical conduct, such as those that govern the actions of members of a professional group.

Community property. A form of property ownership in which husband and wife have an equal interest in property acquired by either spouse during the time of their marriage. Community property does not include property that each spouse owned before marriage or property received by gift or inheritance or as the proceeds of separate property.

Comparables. Properties that are substantially equivalent to the subject property.

Comparative unit method. (See square-foot method)

Comparison method. Competition, the principle of. The principle that a successful business attracts other such businesses, which may dilute profits.

Compound interest. Interest paid on both the original investment and accrued interest.

Condemnation. Taking private property for public use through court action, under the right of eminent domain, with compensation to the owner.

Conditional use permit. Approval of a property use inconsistent with present zoning because it is in the public interest. For example, a church or hospital may be allowed in a residential district.

Conditions, covenants, and restrictions (CC&R's). Private limitations on property use placed in the deed received by a property owner, typically by reference to a Declaration of Restrictions.

Condominium. The absolute ownership of an apartment or a commercial unit, generally in a multiunit building, by a legal description of the airspace that the unit occupies, plus an undivided interest in the ownership of the common elements, which are owned jointly with the other condominium unit owners.

Common elements. All portions of the land, property, and space that make up a condominium property that includes land, all improvements, and structures, and all easements, rights, and appurtenances, and exclude all space composing individual units. Each unit owner owns a definite percentage of the undivided interest in the common elements. Parcel. The entire tract of real estate included in a condominium development; also referred to as a development parcel. Unit. One ownership space in a condominium building or a part of a property intended for independent use, and having lawful access to a public way. Ownership of one unit also includes a definite undivided interest in the common elements.

Conformity, the principle of. The principle that buildings should be similar in design, construction, and age to other buildings in the neighborhood to enhance the appeal, and value. contiguous. Adjacent; in actual contact; touching.

Contract. An agreement entered into by two or more legally competent parties who, for a consideration, undertake to do or to refrain from doing some legal act or acts.

Contract rent. (See scheduled rent)

Contribution, the principle of. The principle that any improvement to a property, whether to vacant land or a building, is worth only what it adds to the property's market value, regardless of the improvement's actual cost.

Conventional loan. A mortgage loan, made with real estate as security, that is neither insured by the FHA nor guaranteed by the VA. Conveyance. A written instrument, such as a deed or lease, by which title or an interest in real estate is transferred.

Cooperative. A multi-unit residential building with title in a trust or corporation that is owned by, and operated for the benefit of persons living within it, who are the beneficial owners of the trust or the stockholders of the corporation, each possessing a proprietary lease granting occupancy of a specific unit in the building.

Corporation. An association of shareholders, created under the law, having a legal identity separate from the individuals who own it.

Correction lines. A system of compensating for inaccuracies in the rectangular survey system due to the curvature of the earth. Every fourth township line (24-mile intervals) is used as a correction line on which the intervals between the north, and south range lines are measured again, and corrected to a full six miles.

Correlation. (See reconciliation)

Cost. The amount paid for a good or service.

Cost approach. The process of estimating the value of a property by adding the appraiser's estimate of the reproduction or replacement cost of property improvements, less depreciation, to the estimated land value.

Cost index. The figure representing construction cost at a particular time concerning construction cost at an earlier time, prepared by a cost reporting or indexing service.

Cost service index method. (See index method)

Covenant. An agreement written into deeds, and other instruments promising performance or nonperformance of certain acts or stipulating certain uses or non-use of property.

Cubic-foot method. A method of estimating reproduction cost by multiplying the number of cubic feet of space a building encloses by the construction cost per cubic foot.

Curable depreciation. A depreciated item that can be restored or replaced economically. (See also functional obsolescence-curable, and physical deterioration-curable)


Datum. A horizontal plane from which heights, and depths are measured.

Debt investors. Investors who take a relatively conservative approach, typically taking a passive role in investment management while demanding a security interest in property financed.

Declaration of restrictions. Document filed by a subdivision developer, and referenced in individual deeds to subdivision lots that lists all restrictions that apply to subdivision properties. (See also deed restrictions)

Decreasing returns, laws of. The situation in which property improvements no longer bring a corresponding increase in property income or value.

Deed. A written instrument that conveys title to or an interest in real estate when properly executed, and delivered.

Deed of trust. (See trust deed)

Deed restrictions. Provisions in a deed limiting the future use of the property. Deed restrictions may take many forms: they may limit the density of buildings, dictate the types of structures that can be erected, and prevent buildings from being used for specific purposes or used at all. Deed restrictions may impose a myriad of limitations, and conditions affecting the property rights appraised.

Default. Failure to perform a duty or meet a contractual obligation.

Demised premises. Property conveyed for a certain number of years, most often by a lease.

Demography. The statistical study of human populations, especially about the size, density, and distribution. Demographic information is of particular importance to people involved in market analyses, and the highest, and best use analyses in determining potential land uses of sites.

Depreciated cost. For appraisal purposes the reproduction or replacement cost of a building, less accrued depreciation to the time of appraisal.

Depreciation. For appraisal purposes, loss in value due to any cause, including physical deterioration, functional obsolescence, and external obsolescence. (See also obsolescence)

Depth factor. An adjustment factor applied to the value per front foot of lots that vary from the standard depth.

Development. (See neighborhood life cycle)

Direct capitalization. Selection of a capitalization rate from a range of overall rates computed by analyzing sales of comparable properties, and applying the formula I/V = R to each.

Direct costs. Costs of erecting a new building involved with either site preparation or building construction, including fixtures.


Easement. A right to use the land of another for a specific purpose, such as a right-of-way or utilities; a non-possessory interest inland. An easement appurtenant passes with the land when conveyed.

Economic age-life method of depreciation. A method of computing accrued depreciation in which the cost of a building is depreciated at a fixed annual percentage rate; also called the straight-line method.

Economic base. The level of business activity in a community-particularly activity that brings income into the community from surrounding areas.

Economic life. The period of time during which a structure may reasonably be expected to perform the function for which it was designed or intended.

Economic obsolescence. (See external obsolescence)

Economic rent. (See market rent)

Effective age. The age of a building based on the actual wear, and tear, and maintenance, or lack of it, that the building has received.

Effective demand. The desire to buy coupled with the ability to pay.

Effective gross income. Estimated potential gross income of rental property from all sources, less anticipated vacancy, and collection losses.

Egress. A way to leave a tract of land; the opposite of ingress. (See also access)

Eminent domain. The right of a federal, state or local government or public corporation, utility or service corporation to acquire private property for public use through a court action called condemnation, in which the court determines whether the user is a necessary one, and what the compensation to the owner should be.

Encroachment. A building, wall or fence that extends beyond the land of the owner, and illegally intrudes on the land of an adjoining owner or a street or an alley.

Encumbrance. Any lien (such as a mortgage, tax lien or judgment lien), easement, restriction on the use of land, outstanding dower right or other interest that may diminish the value of property to its owner.

Entrepreneurial profit. The amount of profit attributable to the development function.

Environmental obsolescence. (See external obsolescence)

Equalization. The raising or lowering of assessed values for tax purposes in a particular county or taxing district to make them equal to assessments in other counties or districts.

Equilibrium. (See neighborhood life cycle) equity. The interest or value that an owner has in real estate over, and above any mortgage or other lien or charge against it.

Equity capitalization rate. A rate that reflects the relationship between a single year's before tax cash flow, and the equity investment in the property. The before-tax cash flow is the net operating income less than the annual debt service payment, and the equity is the property value less any outstanding loan balance. The equity capitalization rate, when divided into the before tax cash flow, indicates the value of the equity. Also called cash on cash rate, cash flow rate or equity dividend rate.

Equity dividend rate. (See equity capitalization rate)

Equity investors. Investors making use of what is termed venture capital to take an unsecured, and thus relatively risky part in the investment.

Escalator clause. A clause in a contract, lease or mortgage providing for increases in wages, rent or interest, based on fluctuations in certain economic indexes, costs or taxes.

Escheat. The reversion of property of a decedent who died intestate (without a will), and without heirs to the state or county as provided by state law.

Escrow. The closing of a transaction through a disinterested third person called an escrow agent or escrow holder, who holds funds and/or documents for delivery on the performance of certain conditions.

Estate. The degree, quantity, nature, and extent of ownership interest that a person has in real property.

Estate inland. The degree, quantity, nature, and extent of interest a person has in real estate.

Estate in the remainder. The remnant of an estate that has been conveyed to take effect, and be enjoyed after the termination of a prior estate; for instance, when an owner conveys a life estate to one party, and the remainder to another. (For a case in which the owner retains the residual estate, see estate in reversion.

Estate in reversion. An estate that comes back to the original holder, as when an owner conveys a life estate to someone else, with the estate to return to the original owner on termination of the life estate.

Excess income. (See excess rent)

Excess rent. The amount by which scheduled rent exceeds market rent.

Expense. The cost of goods, and services required to produce income.

Expense-stop clause. Lease provision to pass increases in building maintenance expenses on to tenants on a pro-rata basis.

External obsolescence. Loss of value from forces outside the building or property, such as changes in optimum land use, legislative enactment's that restrict or impair property rights, and changes in supply-demand relationships.

Externalities. The principle that outside influences may have a positive or negative effect on property value.


Feasibility study. An analysis of a proposed subject or property with an emphasis on the attainable income, probable expenses, and most advantageous use, and design. The purpose of such a study is to ascertain the probable success or failure of the project under consideration.

Federal Reserve Bank System. The central bank of the United States established to regulate the flow of money, and the cost of borrowing.

Fee simple. The greatest possible estate or right of ownership of real property, continuing without time limitation. Sometimes called a fee or fee simple absolute.

Fee simple defeasible. Any limitation on property use that could result in loss of the right of ownership.

Fee simple qualified. Ownership of property that is limited in some way.

FHA. The Federal Housing Administration. Insures loans made by approved lenders in accordance with their regulations.

Final value estimate. The appraiser's estimate of the defined value of the subject property arrived at by reconciling (correlating) the estimates of values derived from the sales comparison, cost, and income approaches.

Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA). Federal legislation that mandates state licensing or certification for appraisers performing appraisals in certain federally related transactions.

First mortgage. A mortgage that has priority as a lien over all other mortgages.

Fixed expenses. Those costs that are more or less permanent, and do not vary in relation to the property's occupancy or income, such as real estate taxes, and insurance for fire, theft, and hazards.

Fixed-rate mortgage. (See amortized mortgage)

Fixture. Anything affixed to land, including personal property attached permanently to a building or land so that it becomes part of the real estate.

Foreclosure. A court action initiated by a mortgagee or lienor to have the court order that the debtor's real estate be sold to pay the mortgage or other lien (mechanic's lien or judgment).

Form an appraisal report. Any of the relatively brief standard forms prepared by agencies such as the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, and Federal National Mortgage Association, and others for routine property appraisals.

Freehold. An estate in land in which ownership is for an indeterminate length of time.

Frequency distribution. The arrangement of data into groups according to the frequency with which they appear in the data set.

Front foot. A standard of measurement, being a strip of land one-foot wide fronting on the street or waterfront, and extending the depth of the lot. The value may be quoted per front foot.

Functional obsolescence. Defects in a building or structure that detract from its value or marketability, usually the result of layout, design or other features that are less desirable than features designed for the same functions in a newer property.

Functional obsolescence-curable. Physical or design features that are no longer considered desirable by property buyers but could be replaced or redesigned at relatively low cost.

Functional obsolescence-incurable. Currently undesirable physical or design features that are not easily remedied or economically justified.


GRI Graduate Realtors Institute The symbol is recognized nationwide. It shows clients that the holder has a solid grasp of real estate fundamentals. GRI consists of three, five-day programs.

  • GRI I Residential Real
  • GRI II Advanced Residential Real Estate
  • GRI III Specialty Real Estate

Going concern value. The value existing in an established business property compared with the value of selling the real estate, and other assets of a concern whose business is not yet established. The term takes into account the goodwill, and earning capacity of a business.

Grant deed. A type of deed in which the grantor warrants that he or she has not previously conveyed the estate being granted to another, has not encumbered the property except as noted in the deed, and will convey to the grantee any title to the property the grantor may later acquire.

Grantee. A person who receives a conveyance of a real property from a grantor.

Grantor. The person transferring title to or an interest in real property to a grantee.

Gross building area. All enclosed floor areas, as measured along a building's outside perimeter.

Gross income. (See potential gross income)

Gross income multiplier. A figure used as a multiplier of the gross income of a property to produce an estimate of the property's value.

Gross leasable area. Total space designed for occupancy, and exclusive use of tenants, measured from the outside wall surface to the center of shared interior walls.

Gross lease. A lease of property under the terms of which the lessee pays a fixed rent, and the lessor pays all property charges regularly incurred through ownership (repairs, taxes, insurance, and operating expenses).

Gross living area. Total finished, habitable, above-grade space, measured along the building's outside perimeter.

Gross market income. (See potential gross income)

Gross rent multiplier. (See gross income multi-Ground lease. A lease of land only on which the lessee usually owns the building or is required to build as specified by the lease. Such leases are usually long-term net leases; the lessee's rights and obligations continue until the lease expires or is terminated for default.

Ground rent. Rent paid for the right to use, and occupy land according to the terms of a ground lease.

Growing equity mortgage (GERI). A type of loan that rapidly increases the equity in a property by increasing the monthly payments a certain percentage each year, and applying those increases to the principal.


Highest, and best use. The legally, and physically possible use of land that is likely to produce the highest land (or property) value. It considers the balance between site, and improvements as well as the intensity, and length of uses.

Historical cost. The actual cost of a property at the time it was constructed.

Historical rent. Scheduled (or contract) rent paid in past years.

Holdover tenancy. A tenancy in which the lessee retains possession of the leased premises after the lease has expired, and the landlord, by continuing to accept rent from the tenant, thereby agrees to the tenant's continued occupancy.

Homeowners' association. Organization of property owners in a residential condominium or subdivision development, usually authorized by a declaration of restrictions to establish property design, and maintenance criteria, collect assessments, and manage common areas.

HUD. Department of Housing, and Urban Development.


Improved land. Real property made suitable for building by the addition of utilities, and publicly owned structures, such as a curb, sidewalk, street-lighting system and/or sewer.

Improvements. Structures of whatever nature, usually privately rather than publicly owned, erected on a site to enable its utilization, e.g., buildings, fences, driveways, and retaining walls.

Income capitalization approach. The process of estimating the value of an income-producing property by the capitalization of the annual net operating income expected to be produced by the property during its remaining economic life.

Increasing returns, the law of. The situation in which property improvements increase property income or value.

Incurable depreciation. A depreciated item that would be impossible or too expensive to restore or replace.

Independent contractor. A person who contracts to do work for another by using his or her methods, and without being under the control of the other person regarding how the work should be done. Unlike an employee, an independent contractor pays all of his or her expenses, personally pays income, and social security taxes, and receives no employee benefits. Many real estate salespeople are independent contractors.

Index method. An appraisal technique used to estimate reproduction or replacement cost. The appraiser multiplies the original cost of construction by a price index for the geographic area to allow for price changes.

Indirect costs. Costs of erecting a new building not involved with either site preparation or building construction; for example, building permit, land survey, overhead expenses such as insurance, and payroll taxes, and builder's profit.

Industrial district or park. A controlled development zoned for industrial use, and designed to accommodate specific types of industry, providing public utilities, streets, railroad sidings, and water, and sewage facilities.

Ingress. The way to enter a tract of land. Often used interchangeably with access. (See also access)

Installment contract. A contract for the sale of real estate by which the purchase price is paid in installments over an extended period of time by the purchaser, who is in possession, with the title retained by the seller until a certain number of payments are made. The purchaser's payments may be forfeited upon default.

Insurable value. The highest reasonable value that can be placed on a property for insurance purposes. Interest. A percentage of the principal amount of a loan charged by a lender for its use, usually expressed as an annual rate.

Interest rate. Return on investment; an interest rate is composed of four component rates: safe rate, risk rate, non-liquidity rate, and management rate. Management rate. Compensation to the owner for the work involved in managing an investment, and reinvesting the funds received from the property.

Interim use. A temporary property use awaiting transition to its highest, and best use.

Intestate. Dying without a will or without having made a valid will. Title to property owned by someone who dies intestate will pass to his or her heirs as provided in the law of descent of the state in which the property is located. investment value. The worth of investment property to a specific investor.

Inwood annuity table. A table that supplies a factor to be multiplied by the desired yearly income (based on the interest rate, and length of time of the investment) to find the present worth of the investment.


A-I Terms - - Real Estate of J-Z Terms

Copy write Information - This list is compiled from several sources on the Internet, and through my personal experience of terms in question. If this list infringes on your copy write laws, please notify 411, and we will remove any necessary information immediately.




Sponsored Articles

Random Articles

Marble, Granite, Travertine and other Natural Stones

Stones such as marble and granite are abundant in nature, but not every stone can be used for architectural purposes due to unfavorable physical...

Kitchen / Bathrooms

Tips on Getting Your Kitchen Fitted

Most people don’t realize the importance of setting up the kitchen appropriately while moving into a new home until they start using it on a daily...

Kitchen / Bathrooms

Infusing that Classic You-Style into your Rental Apartment

Decorating a rented apartment can be the trickiest thing ever: it’s your space, but not really. There's the all-mighty landlord who gets the final...

Real Estate / Finance

Guide to Reduce Energy Costs with Scheduled HVAC Maintenance

When you talk about HVAC or heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, they can be constituted of many different kinds of equipment,...

HVAC / Air Conditioning

Oil Vs Gas: What is Best for Heating Your House?

With cold weather setting in, many homeowners are looking at different ways to heat their homes. Most furnaces use either oil or natural gas, and...

HVAC / Air Conditioning


Contact Us | Submit Article | 411homerepair © 2021